e-infrastructure Roadmap for Open Science in Agriculture

A bibliometric study

The e-ROSA project seeks to build a shared vision of a future sustainable e-infrastructure for research and education in agriculture in order to promote Open Science in this field and as such contribute to addressing related societal challenges. In order to achieve this goal, e-ROSA’s first objective is to bring together the relevant scientific communities and stakeholders and engage them in the process of coelaboration of an ambitious, practical roadmap that provides the basis for the design and implementation of such an e-infrastructure in the years to come.

This website highlights the results of a bibliometric analysis conducted at a global scale in order to identify key scientists and associated research performing organisations (e.g. public research institutes, universities, Research & Development departments of private companies) that work in the field of agricultural data sources and services. If you have any comment or feedback on the bibliometric study, please use the online form.

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Regulatory progress, toxicology, and public concerns with 2,4-D: Where do we stand after two decades?


2,4-D is member of the phenoxy family of herbicides and has major uses in agriculture, forestry, turf, non-crop and aquatic weeds. Since its introduction in 1946, the toxicology of 2,4-D has been studied extensively and repeatedly. Beginning in 1980, regulatory agencies in North America and Europe initiated re-registration/re-evaluation activities for 2,4-D, which resulted in the formation of the Industry Task Force 11 on 2,4-D Research Data, and has resulted in the submission of 60 toxicology studies conducted to GLP standards using 2,4-D acid and its dimethylamine salt and 2-ethylhexyl ester forms. The various forms of 2,4-D were toxicologically equivalent. 2,4-D in all three forms has low-to-moderate acute oral toxicity (rat LD50 699-896mg/kg) and is not well absorbed through skin. In rat and mouse subchronic and chronic studies, overall dietary no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAEL) were 15 and 5mg/kg/day, respectively. 2,4-D was not carcinogenic in either rodent species, consistent with a lack of genotoxicity in in vitro and in vivo test systems. Mild kidney toxicity was the primary toxic effect in these studies. 2,4-D was not a developmental toxicant in rat (overall NOAEL 25mg/kg/day) and rabbit (overall NOAEL 75mg/kg/day) studies, had a low potential for multi-generation reproductive toxicity and neurotoxicity (NOAELs 5mg/kg/day, respectively). When compared to estimated human exposure levels, the overall toxicology NOAEL of 5 mg/kg/day represents a margin of exposure (MOE) of 1700 for commercial applicators and 50,000 for home and garden users. Thus, coupled with the extensive toxicology data, 2,4-D meets safety standards for all countries where it is registered. Additional 2,4-D information is available on the Industry Task Force 11 on 2,4-D Research Data website www.24d.org. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • US
  • DowDupont_Inc (US)
Data keywords
  • research data
Agriculture keywords
  • agriculture
Data topic
  • information systems
Document type

Inappropriate format for Document type, expected simple value but got array, please use list format

Institutions 10 co-publis
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    e-ROSA - e-infrastructure Roadmap for Open Science in Agriculture has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 730988.
    Disclaimer: The sole responsibility of the material published in this website lies with the authors. The European Union is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.